By W. Boyd Rayward
The interval in Europe referred to as the Belle Epoque used to be a time of brilliant and unsettling modernization in social and political association, in inventive and literary lifestyles, and within the behavior and discoveries of the sciences. those tendencies, and the emphasis on internationalization that characterised them, necessitated the improvement of recent buildings and strategies for locating, disseminating, manipulating and handling entry to info. This booklet analyses the dynamics of the rising networks of people, enterprises, applied sciences and courses in which potential info was once exchanged throughout and during every kind of borders and limits during this interval. It extends the body during which historic discourse approximately details can happen via bringing jointly students not just from varied disciplines but additionally from diverse nationwide and linguistic backgrounds. for this reason the amount deals new and miraculous methods of the old interval of the Belle Epoque. it will likely be of curiosity to students and scholars of data background and the emergence of the knowledge society in addition to to social and cultural historians fascinated with the overdue nineteenth and early twentieth century.
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Extra resources for Information Beyond Borders: International Cultural and Intellectual Exchange in the Belle Époque
The advent of the telegraph and the cable had an immediate effect on the creation of agencies for the dissemination of news. In his chapter, “The Formation of Global News Agencies, 1859–1914,” Volker Barth discusses the history of the Agence Havas founded in Paris as early as 1835, the creation of the Reuter Agency in London in 1851 just after a telegraph line had been laid under the English channel (though Reuter had earlier resorted to a pigeon service to bridge a gap in the telegraph line from Berlin to Paris), Wolffs Telegraphisches Burö in 1848, and the American Associated Press also in 1848.
The Problem of Language and International Communication One of the outcomes of the increasing internationalisation of scientific and other forms of communication during this period in terms of the formation of international organisations, the growing number of international meetings, and the proliferating quantity and range of publications was a recognition in the scientific and scholarly community that national languages presented serious obstacles to mutual understanding in areas which should be universal in outlook.
They suggest how pressing the imperative had become that this world be brought under some form of integrated, coordinated, international control that would ensure orderly cumulation, ease of access and the avoidance of duplicative research. The discussions that led to the creation of the various Classification systems in their turn suggest the extent to which groups of scientists and scholars struggled to achieve agreement on how their disciplines were constituted conceptually, to formulate the criteria for inclusion and exclusion when identifying the components and relationships of various subject areas and to how to create effective notations to represent the affiliations of established and emerging fields and subfields.
Information Beyond Borders: International Cultural and Intellectual Exchange in the Belle Époque by W. Boyd Rayward