By P.J. Littlefair
Entire layout advice on city format to make sure strong entry to sun achieve, daylighting and passive cooling. It permits designers to provide cozy, energy-efficient structures surrounded via friendly outdoors areas in an city context.
Read Online or Download Environmental Site Layout Planning: Solar Access, Microclimate and Passive Cooling in Urban Areas PDF
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Extra resources for Environmental Site Layout Planning: Solar Access, Microclimate and Passive Cooling in Urban Areas
Cooling effects of a river and sea breeze on the thermal environment in a built-up area. Energy and Buildings 1990/1991: 15–16: 973–978. 4] Oke T R. Boundary layer climates. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1987. 5] Givoni B. Climate considerations in building and urban design. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1998. 5] Taha H, Akbari H & Rosenfeld A. Heat island and oasis effect of vegetative canopies. Micro-meteorological ﬁeld measurements. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 1991: 44: 123–129.
Prospect This can be measured by the view length distribution in all directions from a specific viewing point. A low prospect will reduce the possible control of a given area by potential victims. As such it is often considered as a cue for insecurity. 1. For instance, medieval squares had average dimensions of 57 × 140 metres. 65 m above ground Refuge This parameter defines how easy it is for a potential attacker to hide in or next to the open space. It is also an insecurity cue. 1]. 1 TOWNSCOPE’s orthogonal projections and sky opening calculations of area A.
However, with the restricted availability of development land in many parts of Europe, this is not always possible. Nevertheless, there may be situations where a choice of sites is possible. In any case, a knowledge of the microclimatic character of the site is valuable because it can help designers and urban planners to develop a strategy to improve the site microclimate, and to decide to what extent solar gains can be exploited. 1 Urban development strategy Strategy: Balance accessibility and energy demands Urban development patterns are a primary factor in sustainable energy policies.
Environmental Site Layout Planning: Solar Access, Microclimate and Passive Cooling in Urban Areas by P.J. Littlefair